Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed matrix is a formal and straightforward tool used in decision-making. It identifies and establishes role and responsibilities for each stakeholder/employee in the project or business process. Role confusion leads to unproductive work culture, the RACI matrix help bring clarity in the roles of all the participating employees. It also eliminates duplication of efforts having defined jobs to perform.
The RACI matrix has various names, such as Responsibility assignment matrix, ARCI matrix or linear responsibility chart.
Parameters in RACI Matrix
Responsible: Who is responsible?
This is a person who performs the task, and is responsible for completion of the project. He/she has the responsibility for either getting the work done or completing it by himself or herself.
Example: Business analyst, application developer or technical architect
Accountable: Who has the authority to approve or disapprove it?
This is a person who is primarily the in-charge of the task. He/she is the one who is answerable for the correct and thorough completion of the tasks of the project. There is only one person who is accountable for each task and he/she signs off the project.
Consulted: Who has the expected expertize?
This is a person who gives continuous feedback on the tasks, and with whom there is two-way communication. Usually there are several people involved in this segment, as subject matter experts. And whose contribution matters for successful completion of the task.
Informed: Who needs to be kept informed?
This is a person who is in charge of the task, not necessarily a single person. Here, they need to be kept up-to-date on progress, often only on completion of the task; and with whom there is just one-way communication
Benefits of RACI
- Identifies and assists in defining the roles and responsibilities
- Clarifies ambiguities with regard to accountabilities and decision points
- Eliminates duplication of efforts
- Enhances communication and coordination between the participating employees
- Resolves the conflicts identified in the project/process
- Improves team efficiencies and effectiveness
- Documenting the roles and responsibilities of the people in the project
Creating the RACI Matrix
- First step in RACI matrix, identify all the tasks involved in completion of the project/process. One needs to list down all the requirements and objectives.
- The roles need to be identified in terms as to which ones will be impacted and who will be implementing the changes.
- Identify the responsibility, accountability and who will be consulted and informed for each of the task
- Ensure every task has a role responsible and a role accountable for it. And avoid any duplication of task
- Before the project starts, stakeholders confirms and agrees the RACI matrix
Example of the RACI Matrix
The matrix is typically created with a vertical axis (left-hand column) of tasks or deliverables and a horizontal axis (top row) of roles as illustrated in the example above.
The RACI has a lot of variations, one of which is used by Project Management Institute called RSI, which stands for Responsible, Sponsor and Informed.
Other variations are:
- RASCI: where the ‘S’ stands for ‘Support’
- CAIRO or RACIO: where the ‘O’ stands for ‘Out of the Loop’ or ‘Omitted’
- RACI-VS: where the ‘V’ stands for ‘Verify’ and the ‘S’ for ‘Signatory’