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Corrective Action Report (CAR)

Corrective Action Report is a procedure used to originate a corrective action. It is used as response to a defect. In simple words, it means an action/actions adopted to eliminate the problem from occurring again. Correction relates to containment whereas corrective action relates to the root cause. The main objective of CAR is to investigate […]

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Lean Manufacturing

The concept of lean manufacturing was based on the philosophy of Toyota’s Production System (TPS), developed post World War II during reconstruction of automobile industry in Japan. Lean Manufacturing refers to the process which manufactures better quality products with a lower defect rate and at a greater speed than its competitors. However, the term “lean” […]

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Just In Time Manufacturing

Just In time as a philosophy was evolved after World War II in Japan, as a result of their diminishing market share in the auto industry. Taiichi Ohno, father of Toyota Production System (TPS) promoted the idea of JIT. Where, Just In Time led basis for Toyota Production System. However, JIT gained worldwide prominence in […]

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Analytical Hierarchy Process

The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a multi-criteria decision-making process based on mathematics and psychology. The mathematician Dr. Thomas L. Saaty developed this process in the 1970s. The AHP is a decision support tool, which has been widely used to solve complex decision problems. It has multi-level hierarchical structure of objectives, criteria and alternatives. It […]

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Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed Matrix (RACI)

Responsible Accountable Consulted Informed matrix is a formal and straightforward tool used in decision-making. It identifies and establishes role and responsibilities for each stakeholder/employee in the project or business process. Role confusion leads to unproductive work culture, the RACI matrix help bring clarity in the roles of all the participating employees. It also eliminates duplication […]

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ANDON

Andon in manufacturing refers to a status-display station. The origin of term Andon is from a Japanese word for traditional paper lantern. An Andon is one of the most common forms of visual management that is in use in Lean. It is a highly effective tool as it enables the operation to run smoothly without […]

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Plan Do Study Act (PDSA)

The Plan do study act is an iterative, four-stage problem solving model used for improving a process or carrying out change. The PDSA cycle is a systematic series of steps for gaining valuable learning and knowledge for the continuous improvement of a product or process. It is also known as Deming cycle, as Dr. Edward […]

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Machince Capability Index

Machine capability index is an index derived from the observations from uninterrupted/continuous production run. It is often known as Cmk. It is a short-term capability index and also called initial process capability. The long-term capability index can be calculated for a machine/process after achieving the required Cmk value. A machine capability study is the testing […]

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Entry and Exit Criteria

Entry criteria are the criteria or requirements, which must be met before initiating a specific task or a process. It is a predefined set of conditions that must exist before a unit of project work can commence. It is used as a process control mechanism, to determine the cost-effectiveness of initiating a process or sub […]

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Change Acceleration Processes (CAP)

Change Acceleration Processes (CAP) represents a group of change management tools that are used to help the change effort to be accelerated towards a common goal. In simple words, it is a set of principles and tools designed to accelerate implementation and increase the success of organizational change. It helps to gauge the political, strategic, […]

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Business Impact Analysis

Business Impact Analysis is a management level analysis, which throws light on critical business processes and identifies which business units, operations and processes are vital for the organization’s existence. It also aims at identifying critical risks and sudden losses. The BIA is the initial step in business continuity and recovery planning. It involves accessing both […]

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Business Risk Management (BRM)

Business Risk management is a subset of risk management used to evaluate the business risks involved if any changes occur in the business operations, systems and process. It identifies, prioritizes and addresses the risk to minimize penalties from unexpected incidents, by keeping them on track. It also enables an integrated response to multiple risks, and […]

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Process Performance Index (Ppk, Cpk, Pp)

Process performance index, is a statistical tool to verify if the sample that have generated from the process is capable to meet the customer requirement. It measures the performance of the process related to both dispersion and centeredness. In simple words, Ppk is an index of process performance, which tells how well a system is […]

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Goal Roles Process and Interpersonal Relations (GRPI)

Richard Beckhard first introduced the GRPI model in 1972. GRPI stands for Goals, Roles, Processes and Interpersonal Relationships which are the four critical and interrelated aspects of teamwork. The GRPI is a four-step project planning tool to help team leaders ensure productivity, efficiency and quality. The model for team organization known as GRPI began in […]

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Acceptable Quality Level

The Acceptable Quality Level is a statistical tool to inspect a particular sample size for a given lot and set maximum number of acceptable defects. In order words, it is the worst tolerable process average when a continuing series of lots is submitted for acceptance sampling. The AQL has been recently renamed from “acceptance quality […]

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