In the current economic and business context characterized by the increase in competition, the maturation of industries and the contraction of markets, the objectives of offensive marketing, how to attract new customers, promote the change of brand and increase the frequency of purchase, are increasingly difficult to achieve.
The aforementioned context reinforces the need for the company to bet on objectives of a more defensive.
The management of claims and complaints is outlined as an element of the strategy defensive commercial whose objective is to maximize customer retention through protection of products and markets from competitive incursions.
The recovery of failures can be understood as a strategic resource with which companies count when it comes to directing customer behavior towards a second purchase opportunity.
The present article work aims to advance in the understanding of the role that performs the management of claims and complaints in organizations and the impact that it exercises on the results of the company. Many are the investigations that indicate the importance of the efficient processing of consumer complaints in the strategy of customer recovery. A good complaints and complaints system can provide benefits to the company through the generation of satisfaction and the consequent loyalty of the consumer. In addition, it provides the opportunity to use the information generated at throughout the process of managing claims to improve in deficit areas.
Despite the expected benefits, both economic and maintenance of relationships long term with the client, derived from a good management of the claims system and complaints, it is relatively easy find organizations with claims management processes unable to satisfy Conveniently the expectations of consumers. This leads to state that, even with reasonable investments in this area, there could be a lack of orientation in terms of efforts, allocation of resources and coordination among different departments of the company to achieve the desired performance in the processing of the complaints. In fact, there are often situations in which former clients of the company ceases to be so because it perceives that a claim is badly resolved or that it has not there was a fair response from the people in charge of the organization. Behind this reality we can find reasons that affect the efforts of organizations, such as the high immediate cost involved in the management of complaints, the delay in obtaining the expected benefits and, even, the high expectations of recovery by the customers compared to the initial purchase. But, obviously, the little knowledge on how to efficiently design a claims system and complaints in the company.
On the contrary, the recovery approach from the company’s perspective has been less developed. There is little literature on the study of organizational factors that determine and explain the perception of justice of the consumer and satisfaction with the management of the complaint. In particular, our work tries to be placed in this last research environment to try to explain the business background of the recovery strategy.
They had suggested going deeper. Thus, the research we present intends to emphasize the effort that the company must develop to obtain a just and satisfactory solution for customers and, therefore, achieve greater satisfaction of the organization with the complaints and grievance system. It is, ultimately, to propose and contrast a model that, from an internal approach to the company, pick up the organizational constructs and the recovery dimensions that make up the structure of the claims system and complaints able to respond to the requests of customers to prevent their escape, as well as discover opportunities for improvement to prevent failures from occurring. Therefore, contributions of the model revolve around the design of an efficient complaints system and complaints in which the effect that the establishment of the rules of procedure, behavior and resolution of complaints in the achievement of solutions.
The customer service system
In recent decades, companies have experienced an increasing evolution in all the areas and, in particular, how to compete in the markets. The elements traditional differentiation centered on the price of the product or its characteristics physical, give way to other strategic decision variables related to the figure of the client as is the construction of service relationships.
The current article is focused on the creation of value for the client because he will choose that commercial offer with greater effective capacity to solve their needs and generate satisfaction Based on this premise, organizations become aware of the role played by intangible activities that add value and that precede, accompany and follow sales operations to customers.
In this sense, proper customer service in companies has become a necessary element to compete in the markets and conveniently satisfy the customer needs. Traditional strategies to retain and retain customers they are not enough and companies try to create solutions according to the demands specific to your target audience. For this, the first step is the commitment to know the client, listen to their concerns, respond to their requests and solve their problems. In this task to achieve greater knowledge, the customer service is outlined as the most visible part of the company in the eyes of the clients and constitutes the support fundamental to understand and serve them properly. Among the activities to develop in the direct relationship with customers we can point out the sales management of products and services, monitoring and control of the client, as well as attention to calls, requests, complaints and claims.
However, for the effective organization of the customer service system, the company has to have a human team in charge of the relationship with the client that shows a high degree of professionalism, interpersonal skills, knowledge about products and company, as well as an adequate level of self-control and empathy with customers. From the management of companies has been promoting the adoption of customer orientation that favors the creation of an attitude on the part of the employees favorable towards satisfaction of the needs of its target audience through the development of actions of quality service beneficial both for customers and for the organization itself. Of this way the employees become the administrators of the clients and generate mechanisms of self-regulation to procure the general welfare of all of them.
The management of the complaints and complaints system and customer satisfaction
For a long time, customer satisfaction has been a constant concern for academics and marketing professionals, especially for their links with the Consumer behavior that is presumed beneficial to organizations. The Customer satisfaction is a term that has been explained under the general framework of paradigm of confirmation / disconfirmation of expectations. The clients they make comparisons of their perceptions about the performance of the product or service with relation to initial expectations. The existing difference or discrepancy between the perceived performance and expectations will lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the client. At first, in the investigations on customer satisfaction, this has been defined with support in the idea of information processing as evaluation cognitive and rational of products and services.
However, other studies expand the explanation by adding a affective component in the formation of the satisfaction concept. Following such current and applied to the field of the management of complaints, find a significant effect of negative emotions on satisfaction of the clients, mediated by the cognitive variables of the disconfirmation of expectations of service recovery and the three dimensions of perceived justice.
In particular, in the context of failures in products and services, (in) customer satisfaction it alludes to the negative events that could arise in the relations of purchase and consumption, events that can lead to claims and complaints. So that the Satisfaction with the response to the complaint can be defined as the degree to which the client he perceives that the result of the procedure meets or exceeds his expectations.