The organization of Job, the Job situation and the Job circumstances are structured in such a way that while maintaining or improving efficiency the job content accords as closely as possible with the capabilities and ambitions of the individual employee ensuring total integration of technical, economic and social aims.
Job design aims at work rearrangement for reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from monotony caused due to repetitive and same mechanistic work again and again. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels. Job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise.
Job design (also referred to as work design or task design) is the specification of contents, methods and relationship of jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements of the job holder.
Job Design Approaches
- Job Rotation
- Job Enlargement
- Job Enrichment
- Job Simplification
- Quality of work life
Job rotation is a process by which employees are given the opportunity to swap between two or more job role and responsibility thus removing the monotony from work. This help workers to gain competencies over various skill set and be associated with larger job role. This increases the efficiency, productivity and skill set of individual worker. Job rotation in turns helps workers adding more ideas and value to organization.
Job enlargement helps in increasing the number of tasks that form part of a person’s job by introducing variety in job. The tasks added are horizontal in nature. With increased responsibility and expectation, workers stay in-line with the work and is never deprived of energy. This helps workers to be associate with the work.
Increasing the person’s responsibility for planning, control, use of his judgement in problem –solving and decision-making, assign more challenging, more discretionary and more interesting tasks. The tasks added are vertical in nature. Job enrichment provide employees’ with autonomy in work and thus give them the independence to execute and take responsibility for their own work. Increase in responsibility helps workers stay focused and motivates them to take decision in favour of the organization as their personal goals get more in line with the organizational goal.
Simplifying the complex task into simpler ones help employee easily learn and execute the task on job. Simplification of processes helps worker in staying connected to their current work in two ways. First the work becomes simple to execute requiring lesser effort. Secondly process simplification approach gives a new scope for employees to improvise the existing process to make it further simple, thus encouraging them to come forward with new ideas and suggestions that in turn keep workers stay connected to their daily work.
Quality of work life
Quality of work life is expressed by the inner feeling that the employee is leading a happy, satisfied, meaningful and self-fulfilling place. “Quality of Work life’ has been used to refer to employee satisfaction or dissatisfaction with overall conditions of work. It is difficult to measure quality of work life across all the employees because each employee has his own perception, views and expectation regarding the job. Reaction to a work environment depends on one’s psychological orientation and experiences. Reactions change over time also.